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Всичко за татуировки, бодиарт, пиърсинг и модификации върху човешко тяло...
Автор: tattoo Категория: Изкуство
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February 17, 2007 - Britney Spears appeared in a tattoo parlor in the San Fernando Valley with her head shaved completely bald.
Eyewitness News shot video of the newly shorn Spears, with tiny tattoos on the back of her neck, sitting for a new tattoo, a pair of red and pink lips, on Friday night. 


"She just wanted something real small on her wrist, something dainty," Max Gott, the tattoo artist at Body and Soul in Sherman Oaks, said. "She got some cute little lips on her wrist."

Derrik Snell, who works at the tattoo parlor, said Spears showed up without notice and stayed for about 90 minutes as about 60 fans, photographers and gawkers gathered outside.

"She seemed fine," Snell said. "I didn't really notice (the hairdo) at first, she had a hood on when she showed up."

Before heading to the tattoo parlor, Spears grabbed an electric clipper and shaved her own head at a San Fernando Valley salon Friday night, it was reported. 

"I tried to talk her out of it. I said, 'Are you sure you're not having a bad day and tomorrow you'll feel differently about it? Why don't we wait a little bit?"' salon owner Esther Tognozzi said.

"She said, 'No, I absolutely want it shaved off now.' Next thing I know, she grabbed the buzzer and she went to the back of my salon and she was shaving off her own hair," Tognozzi said.

The appearance came the same day as reports on TV and Web sites that Spears, who has drawn criticism for her recent partying and sloppy behavior, had briefly checked into rehab.

Larry Rudolph, Spears' manager, couldn't be reached for comment.

 

Angelique Uram, a Spears fan who stood on the tattoo parlor's sidewalk for Friday night's spectacle, was aghast at the singer's new look.

"We could see her in the mirror, and her head is completely shaved," she said. "It looks terrible."

Police arrived to control the crowd and helped Spears' bodyguards guide her into a waiting SUV, her head covered by a hooded sweatshirt.

www.nushostattoo.com

Категория: Изкуство
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Последна промяна: 18.02.2007 17:51



 NOSE PIERCING HISTORY

Nose piercing is very attractive, and can accentuate the face, because the nose is the face's most prominent feature; Leonardo Da Vinci believed that the nose set the character of the whole face.

Nose piercing was first recorded in the Middle East aproximately 4,000 years ago, it is mentioned in The Bible in Genesis 24:22 Abraham requested his oldest servant to find a wife for his son Isaac, the servant found Rebekah, and one of the gifts he gave her was a "golden earring" the original Hebrew word used was Shanf, which also translates as "nose-ring".

This practice is still followed among the nomadic Berber and Beja tribes of Africa, and the Bedouins of the Middle East, the size of the ring denotes the wealth of the family. It is given by the husband to his wife at the marriage, and is her security if she is divorced.

Nose piercing was bought to India in the 16th Century from the Middle East by the Moghul emperors. In India a stud (Phul) or a ring (Nath) is usually worn in the left nostril, It is sometimes joined to the ear by a chain, and in some places both nostrils are pierced. The left side is the most common to be pierced in India, because that is the spot associated in Ayuvedra (Indian medicine) with the female reproductive organs, the piercing is supposed to make childbirth easier and lessen period pain.

In the west nose piercing first appeared among the hippies who travelled to India in the Late 1960's. It was later adopted by the Punk movement of the late 1970's as a symbol of rebellion against conservative values, and conservative people like parents and employers still don't react well to it, so consider their reaction carefully before getting it done.

Nowadays nose piercing is gradually becoming more socially acceptable, and many celebrities have their nose pierced i.e. Madonna, Lenny Kravitz, Sinead O'Connor, and Slash from Guns & Roses.

TONGUE PIERCING HISTORY

Tongue piercing was practised in a ritual form by the ancient Aztecs, Mayas of Central America and the Haida, Kwakiutul, and Tlinglit tribes of the American Northwest. The tongue was pierced to draw blood to propitiate the gods, and to create an altered state of consciousness so that the priest or shaman could communicate with the gods.

Tongue piercing is one of the most popular piercings, it's shocking, provocative and fantastic for oral sex (for both sexes), but at the same time no one need know you have it. Janet Jackson, Keith Flint from Prodigy, Mel B from the Spice Girls and Malcolm Jamahl Warner from the Cosby show all sport pierced tongues.

EAR LOBE PIERCING HISTORY

The ear-lobe was probably man's first attempt at body piercing due to the ease with which it can be pierced. The oldest mummified body in the world was found frozen in an Austrian Glacier in 1991, tests showed the body to be over 5,000 years old. The body had pierced ears and the holes had been enlarged to 7-11mm diameter.

Ears were probably first pierced for magical purposes, very many primitive tribes believe that demons can enter the body through the ear, because demons and spirits are supposed to be repelled by metal, ear-piercing prevents them entering the body. Sailors used to have an ear pierced to improve eyesight, and if the bodies washed up somewhere it would pay for a christian burial. In many societies ear piercing is done as a puberty ritual, in Borneo the Mother and Father each pierce one ear as a symbol of the child's dependance on their parents.

Ear piercing is an almost universal practice for men and women, it's only in western society that it's deemed effeminate. At various times in history men wore elaborate earrings; during the Elizabethan era many famous men such as Shakespeare, Sir Walter Raliegh and Francis Drake wore gold rings in their ears.

"As the Roman Republic grew more effeminate with wealth and luxury, earrings were more popular among men than women; no less a he-man than Julius Caesar brought back to repute and fashion the use of rings in the ears of men."

"Jewels & Women; The Romance, Magic and Art of Feminine Adornment" Marianne Ostier, Horizon Press, New York, 1958.

LIP LABRET PIERCING HISTORY

The piercing of the lips for the insertion of objects into them is very widely practised throughout the world, however only two tribes pierce the lips with a ring; the Dogon tribe Of Mali, and the Nuba of Ethiopia. Among the Dogon the piercing of the lip has religious signifigance, they believe that the world was created by their ancestor spirit "Noomi" weaving thread through her teeth, but instead of thread out came speech. All the other lip piercing that is practised in the world is done with labrets, which can either be a pin of wood, ivory, metal, or even in one case quartz crystals. Among the tribes of Central Africa, and South America the Labret piercing is stretched to extremely large proportions, and large wooden or clay plates are inserted.

Among the ancient Aztecs and Mayans labret piercing was reserved for male members of the higher castes, they wore beautiful labrets fashioned from pure gold in the shape of serpents, golden labrets with stones inset and ones of jade or obsidion (labret in Aztec "Tentetl"). The Native Americans of the Pacific Northwest, and the Inuit peoples of northern Canada and Alaska wore labrets fahioned from walrus ivory, abalone shell, bone, obsidian, and wood.

The Makololo tribe of Malawi wear lip plates in the upper lip called Pelele. The African explorer Dr. Livingstone asked a chief the reason for this, in surprise the chief answered "For beauty! They are the only beautiful things women have. Men have beards, women have none. What kind of person would she be without Pelele ? She would not be a woman at all."

"The plug of wood in the lips, which became little by little a disk, and then a real plaque, was in some manner a sign of possession of the husband of the Djinja woman. It is the man who is to marry her, and very often him alone who operates, transfixing the lips of the young girl with a blade of straw forms the first sign of the deformation to which she will be subject as an adult. It is in sum, a betrothal rite."

Dr. Muraz reffering to the Saras-Djinjas tribe, who insert lip plates up to 24cm in diameter in both lips. Chari River South of Lake Chad in "Nudity to Raiment" Hilaire Hiler London 1929.

SEPTUM PIERCING HISTORY

The piercing of the septum is probably the second most common piercing among primitive peoples after ear piercing, it's even more common than nostril piercing. It's probably so popular for the same reasons as nose piercing, with the added attraction that the piercing can be stretched and large pieces of jewellery can be inserted, i.e. pig's tusks, pieces of bone, feathers, pieces of wood, etc.

The septum piercing is particularly prevalent among warrior cultures, this probably has to do with the fact that large tusks through the septum give the face a fierce appearance. The use of septum tusks is very prevalent in Irian Jaya, New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, pig's tusks being the most popular. Among the Asmat tribe of Irian Jaya the most prestigous septum tusk is the "Otsj" this is a large bone plug, which can be as thick as 25mm. They are usually made of the leg bones of a pig, but occasionally they are made from the Tibia bone of an enemy slain in battle.

The Septum piercing was beloved by the Aztecs, the Mayans, and the Incas. They wore a variety of jewellery, but jade and gold were the most popular because of their religous associations. The modern day Cuna Indians of Panama continue this practice by wearing thick pure gold rings in their septum.

The piercing is also popular in India, Nepal, and Tibet, a pendant "Bulak" is worn, and some examples are so large as to prevent the person being able to eat, the jewellery has to be lifted up during meals. In Rajasthan in Himachal Pradesh these Bulak are particularly elaborate, and extremely large.

Septum piercing was widely practised by many North American Indian tribes, the name of the Nez Perc, tribe of Washington state, stem from their practice of piercing the septum, Nez Perc, is French for Nose Pierced, and was given to the tribe by the French fur traders. Australian aboriginals pierced the septum and passed a long stick or bone through the piercing to flatten the nose, they believed a flat nose to be the most desireable.

Among the Bundi tribe of the Bismarck Ranges of Papua New Guinea the piercing is performed using the thin end of the Sweet Potato plant (Ogai Iriva), usually at age 18-22. The age at which the piercing is done varies greatly between different tribes, some tribes perform the rite at age 9-10.

"You were lost in the bush and now you have come back. You have come back mature; you are men. When you return to your hamlet many girls will come after you. But if you have lived well, and if they come after you, all the well. You will now have your noses pierced to allow you to sing with girls and lead a life like that of your elders. Your (Kangi Poroi) caused you to go to all this trouble, now it will be over."

Source: Address by tribal elder to young men undergoing the (Kangi Poroi) manhood ritual. Source: Field notes of David G. Fitzpatrick 1977 in "Bundi, the culture of Papua New Guinea people" Ryebuck Publications, Nerang Queensland Australia 1983.

THE HISTORY OF NAVEL PIERCING

Navel piercing is a modern invention and has never been recorded in primitive cultures; however the navel has long been recognised as an erogenous zone, because of the difference between men's and women's stomachs. Women's stomachs differ from men's in that they are more rounded in the lower part, are longer than men's, have a greater distance between the navel and genitals, and are more deeply recessed than men's; these features are often exaggerated by artists to make women appear more feminine in paintings.

The invention of the Bikini in 1953 caused a big stir because the navel was seen as being sexually provocative because of it's similarity to the female genitals. The Bikini revolutionised women's lives, along with the liberation of their clothes their lives in general became more liberated. The process was completed when Madonna started the craze for showing of the midriff in the 1980's. The ability to flaunt their sexuality in public gave women more power and confidence in themselves.

"It is easy to pinpoint the moment when body piercing went mainstream. Christy Turlinton came out at a London Fashion show, and in the middle of her navel was a ring! The next day Naomi Campbell showed the world that anything Christy could do, so could she. A gold ring with a small pearl pierced her navel. And then at Isaac Mizrahi's show the two came out together, navels bared and beringed: body piercing as a Supermodel totem" Suzy Menkes The New York Times September 1994.

"I have the most perfect belly button - an inny. When I stick my finger in my belly button, I feel a nerve in the centre of my body shoot up my spine" Madonna Time Magazine 1985.

"I like it, I think it's fun!" Naomi Campbell. "I always thought it was a pretty feminine thing to do - and you can always take it out" Christy Turlington.

Shortly after Naomi and Christy had their navels pierced no one was surprised when Madonna, Cher and Janet Jackson were seen wearing navel rings. Now anybody can joins the ranks of Celebrities and Supermodels by having their navel pierced.

HISTORY OF NIPPLE PIERCING

Roman Centurions wore leather armour breast plates which were shaped to fit the body and rings were sometimes placed in these breastplates where the nipples appeared to be, the rings were used to hang a cape from. This has led to the belief by some people that the actual nipples were pierced to hang a cape from, but anybody who has had their nipples pierced would tell you that this would be a very uncomfortable practice.

"In the middle of the 14th century...Many women suddenly wore 'such low necklines that you could see nearly half their breasts', and among the upper classes in the same century, Queen Isabella of Bavaria introduced the 'Garments of the grand neckline', where the dress was open to the navel. This fashion eventually led to the application of rouge to freely displayed nipples, those 'little apples of paradise' and to placing diamond studded rings or small caps on them, even to piercing them and passing gold chains through them decorated with diamonds" "Dreamtime" Hans Peter Duerr.

In the late 1890s the 'Bosom Ring', came into fashion briefly, and sold in expensive Parisian jewellery shops. These 'Anneux De Sein' were inserted through the nipple, and some women wore on either side linked with a delicate chain. The rings enlarged the nipples and kept them in a state of constant excitation...the medical community was outraged by these cosmetic procedures, for they represented a rejection of traditional conceptions of the purpose of a woman's body." "Anatomy & Destiny" Stephen Kern.

"For a long time I could not understand why I should consent to such a painful operation without sufficient reason. I soon, however came to the conclusion that many ladies are ready to bear the passing pain for the sake of love. I found that the breasts of those who wore rings were incomparably rounder and fuller developed than those who did not. My doubts were now at an end...so I had my nipples pierced, and when the wounds were healed, I had rings inserted...with regard to the experience of wearing these rings, I can only say that they are not in the least uncomfortable or painful. On the contrary, the slight rubbing and slipping of the rings causes in me an extremely titillating feeling, and all my colleagues I have spoken to on this subject have confirmed my opinion." London socialite writing in "Vogue" 1890.

Nipple piercing was once practised by the Karankawa indians of Texas adn is still practised in the Mountains of Algeria, by women of the nomadic Kabyle tribe. In the west nipple piercing has made a resurgence, with many famous people having their nipples pierced ie. Lenny Kravitz, Jaye Davidson (The Crying Game), Gerry Connelly (Comedian), Tommy Lee (Drummer Motley Crue- Husband of Pamela Stephenson Baywatch) and Axl Rose (Guns & Roses).

BENEFITS

The benefits of having your nipple pierced are the same today as they were for the fashionable ladies of Paris and London in the 1890s. It makes the nipples larger, more sensitive, more sexually attractive, and provides a constant stimulation of the nipples, one friend of mine describes his nipple piercing as "a lightswitch for an erection". Nipple piercing is very effective for increasing the size of small nipples (especially men's), and can stop nipples from becoming inverted by pulling them out. In fact, it was recommended by doctors in Victorian England to increase the size of the nipples to make breastfeeding easier. It provides greater sexual pleasure because it gives your partner something to play with during sex.

CLITORIS HOOD PIERCING HISTORY

 The word Kleitoris was used over 2,500 thousand years ago by the ancient Greeks to describe a part of the female genitals, most probably the Labia Minora or Inner lips of the Vagina. In 1593 at the trial of a woman accused of witchcraft, the inquisitor (a married man) discovered a Clitoris for the first time. When he saw this "little lump of flesh sticking out to the length of half an inch" he decided that it must be the "Devil's Teat". The other inquisitors, likewise astounded, agreed and on this fact the woman was convicted and executed for witchcraft. The word "Clitoris" first appeared in the English language in 1615, it was used in an early anatomy book to describe a small, sensitive organ located underneath the upper apex of the Labia Minora.

PRINCE ALBERT PIERCING HISTORY

 The Prince Albert piercing is named after Prince Albert who was the husband of Queen Victoria of England. He was reputeded to have had this piercing done prior to his marriage to the queen around 1825, at that time Beau Brummel started the craze for ultra tight mens trousers. Because the pants were so tight, the penis needed to be held to one side or the other so as not to create an unsightly bulge. To accomplish this some men had their penis pierced to allow it to be held by a hook on the inside of the trousers, this piercing was called a "Dressing Ring" at the time because tailors would ask if a gentleman dressed to the left or the right and tailor the trousers accordingly, tailors to this day will ask if you dress to the left or right.

SEXUAL EFFECTIVENESS

 The Prince Albert Piercing is very effective for sex, that is why it is the most popular male genital piercing. It provides greater stimulation to both partners during sex, and it has the added allure of being being somewhat kinky, people always have to wonder what it would be like to have sex with someone with a genital piercing. On top of all that it makes the penis more aesthetically attractive, in the same way as jewellery worn on the fingers.

FRAENULUM PIERCING HISTORY 

The piercing of the Fraenulum is probably the second-most popular male genital piercing, it is usually incorrectly referred to as a "Frenum" piercing but this an abbreviated version of the true word Fraenulum . The Fraenulum is the small ridge of flesh joining the foreskin to the Glans of the penis, in most cases circumcision removes or destroys it, however in rare cases it still exists after circumcision. I can only find one account of it occurring amongst tribal people.

"Amongst the Timorese of Indonesia, the Frenulum beneath the glans penis is pierced with brass rings, the function of the ring is to enhance stimulation during sex."

Die kunstlichen Verunstaltungen des Korpers bei den Batta. Zeitschrift fur Ethnologie 16:217-225 1884.

FORESKIN PIERCING (INFIBULATION)

 The practice of piercing of the foreskin for the insertion of jewellery is as old as circumcision, and is of immemorial antiquity, going back far beyond the earliest recorded history. During the games of Ancient Greece, the athletes performed nude, and to prevent their penises moving about they bound the foreskin with a ribbon and tied it to the base of the penis. This ribbon. or leather thong was called the "Kynodesme" from the Greek "Kuon" foreskin, and "Desmos" fastening band. This temporary practice probably led to the permanent piercing of the foreskin, either to prevent slaves and athletes from having sex, or to prevent them from having erections. The Roman's used a practice called Infibulation, it involved two piercings going through the foreskin (or Labia in women) and a lock (Fibula) being placed therein.

The Roman historian Mensius declares that Infibulation may be traced back to the time of the siege of Troy (12th Century BC) for he points out that according to "The Odyssey" (Bk. VIII, Line 477) Agamemnon departed for the Trojan War, and left his wife Clytemnestra, in the care of the singer Demodecus, seeing that he had been infibulated.

The prevalence of the practice is attested to by the number of references to it, to be found in ancient writings. The roman writers Juvenal, Martial, Strabo, Fallopio, and Hieronymus Mercurialis all make mention of the practice. The piercing process is described in detail by the famous 1st Century Roman physician Celsus, in his treatise on medicine "De Medecina".

PALANG & APADRAVYA PIERCING HISTORY 

The piercing of the Glans of the Penis for the insertion of jewellery is a very ancient practice, the Apadravya piercing is mentioned in the Kama Sutra (700AD) and the Palang piercing has been practised in SE Asia for several hundred years. Several genital piercings originate in Asia where piercing has been practised since antiquity, the following quote, from "The Kama Sutra" describes the process for the piercing of an Apadravya, or a vertical barbell through the glans of the Penis.

"The people of the southern countries think that true sexual pleasure cannot be obtained without perforating the Lingam, and they therefore cause it to be pierced like the lobes of the ears of an infant pierced for earrings."

The Palang (often incorrectly called Ampallang) is a piercing that occurred among the Kayan, Kenyah, Kelabit, Dayak, and Iban tribes of Sarawak on the Island of Borneo. It involves piercing the Glans of the Penis horizontally, and the insertion of a barbell. The term "Palang" translates as "Crossbar" in Iban and can be related to the timber roof supports of the longhouses of the tribes of the area, and symbolises the protective power of the male over the family.

"the operation is performed only on adults. The skin is forced back, the penis is placed between two small planks of bamboo and for ten days and it is covered with rags dipped in cold water. Then the glans is perforated with a sharp bamboo needle; a feather dipped in oil, is placed in the wound until it heals. Wet compresses are used all the while. When the Dayaks travel and work they carry a feather in this canal. As soon as they grow desirous, they pull the feather out and replace it with the ampallang. The ampallang is a little rod of copper, silver or gold, four centimetres long and two millimetres thick. At one end of this rod is a round ball or pear-formed object made of metal; at the other end a second ball is placed as soon as the ampallang is affixed. The whole apparatus is, when ready, five centimetres long and five millimetres thick.... Von Graffin has seen one Dayak who had two ampallangs, one behind the other! The perforation was always horizontal and above the urethra.... The women of the Dayaks say the embrace without this ornament is like rice, but with it, it tastes like rice with salt. Mantegazza, Sexual Relations of Mankind

"The function of this device is, superficially, is to add to the sexual pleasure of the women by stimulating and extending the inner walls of the vagina. It is, in this, in my experience decidedly successful." Tom Harrisson, The Sarawak Museum Journal Vol VII, December 1956.

GUICHE (geesh) PIERCING HISTORY

The word "Guiche" is supposed to mean an opening in French, the actual translation is "window". This piercing is supposed to be a Samoan puberty ritual, but Derek Freeman Professor Emeritus of the Anthropology Department of The Australian National University, one of the world"s foremost authorities on Samoa informed me that he had no experience of this practice in Samoa. The puberty ritual practised in Samoa is subincision, this is where the underneath of the foreskin is cut down to the fraenulum. Professor Freeman stated that this practice has never existed in Samoa, and if it had in the past he would have been aware of it.

Doug Malloy Travelled to Tahiti just before WW2, where he met an Australian sailor who had jumped ship named Reggie Jones. Reggie told Doug about the piercing, and performed the piercing for him.

Doug Malloy said that this piercing originated in Tahiti, the piercing was done at age 12-14 and a leather thong inserted into the piercing, a small weight either a rock or a shell was hung from the thong once the piercing was healed. The procedure was performed by a "Mahu", in Tahiti a Mahu is a transvestite male who has taken on the role of a women, they are highly respected members of society, and they were said to possess magical powers by adherants of the ancient Tahitian religion. However, again I can find no evidence of this practice in any literature about Tahiti.

The ancient Polynesian mariners used to judge their direction by the movement of the waves, the best way to do this was to squat down and feel this movement through the swinging of the testicles. The Raphe Perineum where the Guiche piercing is done is the site of a large amount of nerves, and having a weight hanging from the piercing could possibly have helped the ancient mariners derive their direction, but this is only speculation on my part.

HAFADA (SCROTUM) PIERCING

The Hafada piercing is a scrotum piercing on the side of the scrotum, where there is a crease. It is supposed to have originated in Arabia and spread through Northern Africa and the Middle East. The piercing is carried out as a puberty ritual, it is generally done on the left hand side. The piercing was supposedly bought back to Europe by French Foriegn Legionares when they were stationed in what is now Lebanon and Syria.

Scrotum piercings aren't practised by any primitive tribes, at least I can't find any evidence of such practices, it's really a modern western invention. Some people have an incredible number of piercings through their scrotum, Sailor Sid one of the early piercers had 120 scrotum piercings at the time of his death, and he planned to have more.

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Последна промяна: 17.10.2007 15:08
Tattooing in progress II ...


tattoos by Nusho
body by
Chochev












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Има много видове студия, но много малко от тях са наистина добри.
Като си правите татус гледайте да не го избирате на място. Да не е нещо извадено от каталог, а да е нещо което има стойност за вас. Не си правете малки и незначителни татуси като китайски символи и трайбъли( плетеници ).



! Поискайте да видите техни творби. Гледайте в тяхните татуси да няма изкривени линии.

! Попитайте ги какви стерилни мерки имат !

! Дали специално за вас запояват новите игли !

! Стерилизират ли ги !

! Каква боя използват. Трябва да е растителна,  а не туш !

! Използват ли ръкавици !

! Знаят ли какво да правят ако вие случайно припаднете. Или по-точно дали могат да дават първа помощ !

И после се молете да са Ви казали истината !!!!!

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Последна промяна: 19.05.2009 11:02
Tattooing in progress ...


tattoos by Nusho
body by
Chochev











































more on www.nushostattoo.com
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09.02.2007 15:39 - Methods of Tattoo Removal

There are several excellent methods of tattoo removal available today. The method that the physician chooses will depend upon the size of the tattoo and its location as well as the length of time it has been on the skin. How the patient heals may also be a factor in the decision.




Excision

Another popular method of tattoo removal especially when the dyed area is small is by excision. The advantage of this method is that the entire tattoo can be removed. With larger tattoos, however, it may be necessary to excise in stages, removing the center of it initially and the sides at a later date.

Excision involves an injection of a local anesthetic to numb the area after which the tattoo is removed surgically. The edges are then brought together and sutured. With this procedure, there is minimal bleeding which is easily controlled with electrocautery. In some cases involving large tattoos, a skin graft taken from another part of the body may be necessary.

Dermabrasion

Another method of tattoo removal is called dermabrasion in which a small portion of the tattoo is sprayed with a solution that freezes the area. The tattoo is then "sanded" with a rotary abrasive instrument causing the skin to peel. Because some bleeding is likely to occur, a dressing is immediately applied to the area.



Laser

In recent times, many physicians consider laser surgery one of the best methods of tattoo removal . Today, the Q-switched Nd:Yag, Q-switched Alexandrite and the Q-switched Ruby are among the most frequently used lasers today for the removal of unwanted tattoos. They are all employed in a similar manner. If necessary, a cream to numb the skin can be applied prior to the treatment. Pulses of light from the laser are directed onto the tattoo breaking up the tattoo pigment. Over the next several weeks the body's scavenger cells remove the treated pigmented areas. More then one treatment is usually necessary to remove all of the tattoo.


Salabrasion

Salabrasion, a procedure which is centuries old, is a method still sometimes used today to remove tattoos. As with the other methods, a local anesthetic is used on and around the tattooed area after which a solution of ordinary tap water dipped in table salt is applied. An abrading apparatus such as the one used with dermabrasion, or an even simpler device such as a wooden block wrapped in gauze, is used to vigorously abrade the area. When the area becomes deep red in color, a dressing is applied.



What Results Can Be Expected?

Regardless of which method of tattoo removal is used, some scarring or color variations are likely to remain. Healing time varies depending upon the size and depth of the tattoo, the proce-dure used and the patient's healing process. It is important for the patient to discuss with the physician the various procedures, how they are performed, and the probable results. Care of the treated area must also be discussed.

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Japanese Tattooing from the Past to the Present


The Jomon to the pre-Edo period


 The origin of tattooing in Japan has been traced back to the Jomon period (10,000 B. C. ~ 300 B. C.). Jomon means "pattern of rope." Many ceramic pots with markings of rope were found in that period. Clay figurines produced in this period are called dogu. Scholars consider that some dogus show tattoo-like markings on their faces and bodies. The oldestdogus whose faces have a depiction of tattooing were found near Osaka in 1977. They are estimated to date from dated the fifth century B. C. (Richie,1980).  During the Yayoi  period(300 B. C. ~ 300 A. D.) clay figurines with tattoo markings were also found (Yoshioka, 1996).
The custom of tattooing in Japan is described in the third century Chinese  history, Gishiwajinden,  which is the oldest record mentioning Japan. Japan is called Wa, and the custom of
tattooing is mentioned in this text:
The men of Wa tattoo their faces and paint their bodies with designs. They are fond of diving for fish and shells. Long ago they decorated their bodies in order to protect themselves from large fish. Later these designs became ornamental. Body painting differs among the various tribes. The position and size of the designs vary according to the rank of individuals.... They smear their bodies with pink and scarlet just as we Chinese use powder (Tsunoda and Goodrich, cited by Dalby, 1993: 22).


 The Kofun period (300 A. D.- 600 A. D.) came after the Yayoi era. The word kofun means an old tomb. In this period, hilly tombs in many places were made, and the clay figures in the shape of dolls, horses and huts were also found in the tombs. The clay figures are called haniwa, which is the counterpart of dogu in the Jomon era. Markings on some haniwa  are regarded as patterns of tattoos.
 In 622 A. D., an envoy of China recorded the custom of Japanese tattooing in Zuisho. There is a section, "Ryukyu kokuden" in it, and the practice of tattooing among the Ryukyu women is described. The Ryukyu islands are today in Okinawa prefecture, the southern most part of Japan. When it was an independent country it was threatened by the rule of China and Japan.


This record, Zuisho, shows Okinawa and Taiwan already established trading in those days. However, it is not confirmed whether  Ryukyu in Zuisho itself refers to Okinawa or Taiwan. Many scholars state that the design of Okinawan tattoo is similar to the tattooing style in a part of aboriginal Taiwanese (Yoshioka, 1996). The Okinawan tattoo may be connected not only with the custom of tattooing in Taiwan but also with South East Asia.
 It was not until the eighth century that the first Japanese printed books appeared. The Kojiki (712 A. D.) mentions that there are two types of tattoos. One is a mark of distinction on a man of very high status, and the other is to identify criminals (McCallum, 1988). Later, the Chronicles of Japan, the Nihonshoki, was complied in 720 A.D. According to the Nihonshoki, a person named Azumi no Murajihamako was tattooed as punishment for treason. This was an example of the punitive application of tattooing.  McCallum (1988) summarizes the practice of Japanese tattooing during the Kofun period. In the early Kofun period, the tattoo persisted as a socially acceptable practice. However, it seems to have acquired negative associations, perhaps from the middle of the period (McCallum, 1988).
 Between 600 A.D. and 1600, there is little literature regarding the custom of tattooing. Tamabayashi (1956) and Van Gulik (1982) state the Joei Code issued in 1232 mentions penal tattooing. According to some scholars (Richie; 1980, Van Gulik; 1982), tattooing was used to mark and distinguish the social outcasts. Consequently, the people who were tattooed as punishment formed minority groups, called eta (the euphemism of village people) and hinin (non-humans).
 Iizawa (1973) and Tamabayashi (1956) report that the custom of tattooing is also found among samurai warriors in the sixteenth century. In certain areas, the samurai had tattoos for identification.
Soldiers wore armor and had other identifying belongings, of course, but scavengers often stripped dead bodies on a battlefield , which made identification difficult. Tattoos offered certain identification


(Iizawa, 1973; 252).
 During the Tensho era (1573~1591), the samurai soldiers of the Satsuma clan (now Kagoshima region) were tattooed with Japanese characters on the upper arms. However, this information is not clearly confirmed.
Tattooing in the Ainu and the Ryukyu
Ryukyu tattooing was first mentioned in 1461. However, some scholars consider the description of tattooing in the Zuisho of 622 to be the oldest record of the Ryukyu tattoo even though this information is still speculative (Yoshioka, 1996).  The oldest reports of Ainu tattoos were recorded by an Italian researcher, Girolamo de Angelis in 1612 and 1621 (Yoshioka, 1996). The Ainus were tattooed on the face as well as the back of the hands and arms. The tattoos were done around the lips, cheeks, the forehead or the eyebrows.  There are several motivations for Ainu tattooing: cosmetic purposes, tribal purposes, sexual maturity, religious purposes and adornment. Although only the Ainu women's tattoos were mentioned in most cases, it was also reported that the men were tattooed in some regions (Takayama; 1969, Yoshioka; 1996).


Ainu girls were first tattooed when they were 10 to 13 years old. Some women started when they were 5 or 6 years old. Their tattoos were completed by the time they reached marriageable age.  The patterns of the Ainu tattoos are related to their tribal clothing.
Tosabayashi (1948) presents the study on the patterns of the Ainu tattoo in detail. He mentions that the patterns of the tattoos are similar to the chastity belt that the Ainu women wore, and that Ainu tattoos symbolize virtue or purity. The Ainu tattoo is also used for protection from the atrocities committed by other tribes.
 The Ryukyu tattoos, on the other hand, were done on only the back of the hands, including the fingers, the wrists and the knuckles. There are no examples of  facial tattoo (Glacken, 1955). Tattooing is not practiced in every Ryukyu island. In some parts, both men and women got tattooed, but in others, only women had tattoos. In other parts of Ryukyu, no one was tattooed. The age at which tattooing began was different, depending on the areas of the Ryukyu islands or generation (Yoshioka, 1996).  The Ryukyu tattooing symbolized religious beliefs, sexual maturity, indication of marriage, body adornment, distinction of sex, and tribal customs. Glacken (1955) reports that the purpose of the Ryukyu women's tattooing was to prevent being carried off to brothels in Japan. Kidnappings were frequent occurrences in the Ryukyu history and the Ryukyu people knew that the Japanese disliked tattooed women (Haring, 1969).
 There are examples of therapeutic tattooing
among the Ainu and the Ryukyu. It was believed that tattoos would heal the affected parts (Yoshioka, 1996). This is different from the medical tattoos, but more likely to be magical. The Edo period (1600 -1867)
Socio-cultural Background 


Tokugawa Ieyasu, the first shogun of the Edo period, unified the country and set political power in Edo (the present Tokyo). He set the rigid social system and divided it into four classes, shi (samurai warriors), no (peasants), ko (artisans) and sho (merchants). These ranks were based on Confucianism. Samurai warriors were the highest rank. Peasants and artisans were a higher status than merchants, because they contributed to the country as producers. In those days, taxes were paid with the staple food of rice. Therefore, the peasants were seen as second class citizens.  Ieyasu continued to issue strict regulations, stressing religious thoughts. In 1614, he banned Christianity. Ieyasu's proclamation against Christians clearly states that Japan is the country of the gods. Interestingly, Ieyasu also quotes the Confucian doctrine. Kung-fu-tze also said: "Body, hair and skin we have received from our father and mother; not to injure them is the beginning of filial piety. To preserve one's body is to revere god"


(Ballu, 1945: 131). Filial piety is one of the important elements in the Confucian philosophical thoughts, and consists of filial duties toward parents: obedience, responsibility, and loyalty. It is the foundation of feudal ethics. Furthermore, Neo-Confucian philosopher, Chu Hsi's system was later guided by Hayashi Razan, one of the famous scholars of the early Edo era. Chu Hsi emphasizes human relationships in the Five Human Relations: between father and son, ruler and subject, husband and wife, older and younger brother, and friends (Sansom, 1963).
 The Buke Shohatto (Rules for the Military Houses) was announced in 1615, and was the fundamental code of the samurai. It consists of thirteen clauses, and strictly mentions the way of the samurai in daily life from education to marriage, including a dress code. The tenth clause in the Buke Shohatto states: "All costumes and ornaments are to be appropriate to the wearer's rank, and not extravagant in colour or pattern (Sansom, 1963:  8). The restrictions about costumes in the Edo period were very strict. Ieyasu
issued the orders regarding clothing repeatedly during his regime. As for commoners, the dress code was also established in detail (Dalby; 1983 and 1993, Minnich; 1963, Sansom; 1963, Tanida and Koike; 1989).


 Following the development of the samurai culture in the city of Edo, the population of common people also grew in both rural and urban areas. Merchants, the lowest class, gradually gained power by the eighteenth century and this led to the growth of the economy. The rich merchants were often employed by government officials and became richer than the samurai.  Thanks to the economic prosperity, the standard of living among townspeople was improving. They enjoyed a peak of material wealth and a flourishing of the arts.
Considered in retrospect, the most attractive feature of this era is the gaiety of colour and pattern in clothing and decoration which reflected the mood of the times. It is an especially interesting aspect of the social history of Japan that the rise of a prosperous class of shopkeepers and craftsmen was accompanied by a lively creative phase in the arts (Sansom, 1963: 153).


 This is called the Genroku era (1688-1704), in other words, ukiyo, or
"floating world." The word ukiyo stems from the Buddhist expression, and originally means "the dark, shifting world of existence, or transience of life." As society changed through the centuries, the meaning became "floating world." The novelist Ryoi initially used this term in his work, Ukiyo Monogatari,  "Tales of the Floating World" (Williams, 1983). He describes the life in the early Edo era, that is, the ukiyo world.
The wealthy townspeople surrounding him were not worried about future salvation but rather enjoyed their materialistic, temporal existences and those pleasures appealing directly to the senses. They lived for the moment : "the fleeting moment" (Williams, 1983: 1).  Many prominent art works were produced, and chonin bunka, culture of the townspeople, was fully developed in this period.

Legal prostitution


Human passion and its physical expression were not controlled by an abstract moral code, whether of chivalry or sin, but by aesthetics, by decorum for its own sake. Love was a kind of art for art's sake, an exquisite piece of theater (Ian Buruma, "The Art of Prostitution", in Behind the Mask, 1984:78). Geisha literally means a person engaging in art or entertainment. They are professional artists. The geisha are trained to play musical instruments, sing, and dance before making their debut as geisha. They are not prostitutes, but well-educated entertainers. Although the geisha were prohibited from engaging in prostitution, the prohibition was not always observed.
  The term geisha was first used in the Edo period. After the first
geisha, Kasen of Ogiya, made her debut in 1762 (Akiyama; 1937, Fujimoto; 1915), the number of geisha increased rapidly. The clients were mostly samurai, but they were gradually replaced by townspeople (Nishiyama, 1997).
Yoshiwara was one of the famous pleasure districts, and the favorite site for the Edo culture such as ukiyo-e, kabuki plays, poetry and literature.  During the Edo period, prostitution was under the supervision of the Tokugawa government. It was legal, but a license was required. The yujos were  women who engaged in sexual activity with customers while the geisha  did not. Legal prostitution, in fact, continued until 1957 (Dalby, 1983).
 Van Gulik (1982) points out that Japan's marriage system and the
subservient position of women in those days led to the flourishing of
pleasure districts. Marriage was a family matter, and arranged between families in order to maintain their family name, social position, mutual interests and obligations. Romantic love, personal preference, and unconstrained social contacts between men and women were therefore usually sought in the entertainment quarters

(Van Gulik, 1982: 21).
 The life-style or status of women was based on Neo-Confucian ethics. Sansom (1963) describes this: The worst treatment of all was that to which a woman had to submit. During her life she had to devote herself to what were called the "three obediences" (sanju): to her parents when a child, to her husband when married, and to her children when she grew old. Too much learning was thought to spoil a girl's character, but in the middle and upper classes some education was approved, in literature, music, and handwriting (p.89). In those days, Japanese men had sex with their wives for procreation, and with the yujos for recreation (Dalby, 1983).
Kishobori - the vow tattoo
 The term, irebokuro means tattoo, and was used in the Edo period. Ire or ireru, means to insert, and bokuro or hokuro is a beauty spot. In the early Edo period, tattoo was like a dot, not pictorial yet.  Irebokuro originated among the yujos, or legal prostitutes. The custom of irebokuro probably parallels the establishment of legal prostitution (Tamabayashi, 1956).  According to Tamabayashi (1956), the major group of people who accepted irebokuro was the yujos, and the second was the geishas. Tattooing was rare among ordinary girls. On the other hand, in the case of the male population, the majority was the yujo or the geisha's clients or womanizers. Tattooed priests and youngsters were sometimes seen.
Tamabayashi (1956) describes one of the old patterns of irebokuro: a man and a woman hold their hands together, and get a mole-like
tattoo on each hand where the tip of the thumb reached. Irebokuro was a reminder for lovers, and showed a vow of eternal love. It is said that some yujos wore tattoos of their lover's name and the Japanese character for life (inochi). It symbolized the strength of their pledge of love. Tamabayashi also mentions irebokuro in homosexuality between priests and young boys. These tattoos were also called kishobori, the vow tattoo.  The yujos were likely to choose to be tattooed on the arm, especially the inside of the arm and near the armpit, not the forearm (Tamabayashi, 1956). Their tattoos probably meant secret affairs, forbidden love or personal desires. The purpose of the yujo's tattoos was one of serious promise, or nuptial proof, or eternal love, and the pledge of the heart and soul towards sincere love (Tamabayashi, 1956:24).  For others, the irebokuro was perhaps just a tool to please and keep their customers, and thus to succeed as a highest ranked courtesan.

 The geishas and the yujos made up strange customs to keep their clients. Several authors (Fujimoto; 1915, Tamabayashi; 1956, Seigle; 1993, Van Gulik; 1982) cite examples of the geisha's behavior.
1. A woman gave a written pledge to her lover.
2. She tattooed the lover's name in her arm.
3. She cut her hair.
4. She cut her little finger.
5. She tore off the nail of one of her fingers.
6. She stabbed her elbow or thigh (Fujimoto, 1915: 129).
 In the literature of the Edo period, the practice of the pledge letter, tattooing, finger-cutting, hair-cutting, nail-tearing are often described (Seigle; 1993, Tamabayashi; 1956, Van Gulik; 1982). The purpose of the pledge letter was to get a few drops of blood from both the man and the woman (Seigle, 1993).  Tattooing was similar to the pledge letter. Many yujos and geishas tattooed themselves to please their customers.
However, tattooing was considered inelegant and indiscreet among high-ranking geisha, and they tended to avoid it (Seigle, 1993). Some customers insisted on it and the geisha were forced to submit. At the same time, they had to know how to erase tattoos. The courtesans cauterized tattoos with moxa (dried herb) and fire (Seigle; 1993, Tamabayashi; 1956,Van Gulik; 1982). The tattoo could be the cause of trouble if the courtesans had several different customers. There are records of the yujos and the geishas repeatedly having to tattoo over or remove old tattoos whenever their customers changed.  Finger and hair-cutting, and nail-tearing were more serious tokens than tattooing one's name because they were obviously visible. The extreme form of love was shinju, double suicide. Many lovers committed double suicides, and this phenomenon peaked from the Genroku era (1688-1703) to 1720's (Seigle, 1993). By the late Tokugawa era, kishobori was no longer popular.

Penal Tattooing


 The Tokugawa government had financial problems. Yoshimune became the eighth shogun in 1716, and began to reform the policy. One of the biggest changes was frugality. He himself reduced his expenditures, and ordered all other officials to cut the cost of departments. The townspeople were also forced to lower their standard of living. They were not allowed to wear showy and luxurious garments.
The most crucial shift was the practice of tattooing as a form of punishment in 1720 (Nakano; 199u, Tamabayashi; 1956, Van Gulik; 1982), which replaced the amputation of nose and ears. Tattooing as punishment did not pertain to the samurai class (Van Gulik, 1982). According to Yoshimune's code, robbers as well as murderers were sentenced to the death. Crimes such as extortion, swindling and fraud were punished by tattooing. The criminals were tattooed with a black ring around an arm for each offense, or with a Japanese character on the forehead.
The tattoo became a mark of punishment, used by the authorities to ostracize the outlaws from society. While the purpose of this penalty was to identify criminals and repeat offenders, tattooing as punishment became a vicious circle. The tattooed criminals were ostracized by society throughout their whole lives. Some of them abandoned all hope, and sank to a level of despair and a cycle of crimes. Consequently, the penal system formed a solitary minority group, called eta class, the social outcasts.  For this reason, ordinary people became afraid of tattooed people. The people with the penal tattoos often used the records incised on the skin for illicit purposes. They hardly rebuilt their trust in society. Some of them abandoned themselves to despair and repeated crimes. This phenomenon made
other people feel frightened and they came to see any tattooed person as a criminal or evil. Therefore, showing tattoos was perceived as a threat to society.
Eventually, the custom of penal tattooing was abolished in 1870 after being practiced for 150 years.
The Origin of Pictorial Tattooing
 Pictorial tattoos first appeared after the Horeki era (1751-1764) (Iizawa; 1973, Nakano; 199u, Tamabayashi; 1956, Van Gulik; 1982, Yoshioka;1996). The first stage of the pictorial tattoos was relatively small, and the designs were family crests or evil images such as a severed human head. Even though people began to have a couple of tattoos on their body, each piece was scattered at random, not unified.
 The development of the art ofukiyo-e  changed the style of Japanese tattoo. The ukiyo-e  are pictures of "the floating world," mainly depicting the landscape, people's daily life including entertainment such as kabuki-plays or the pleasure quarters. The images were first illustrated in color prints. In the 1650's woodblock printing began to translate the ukiyo-e into widely available books (Smith, 1988).  Forrer (1988) and Hillier (1981) point out the difference between Western drawings and Japanese counterparts. While Western drawings were used in a wide range of materials, Japanese drawings were invariably executed in brush and ink. The limited materials in Japan led to the development of sumie or suibokuga, monochrome ink paintings, and influenced the revival of tattooing. Later, colors were imported from foreign countries.
Japanese tattooing was inspired by traditional arts. The brush would be altered to a bundle of tattooing needles. Tattooing became the popular art among the lower class.  The Chinese legendary story, the Suikoden, the "Water Margin", affected the tattoo designs. The Suikoden described the adventures of legendary heroes. It was first translated from Chinese to Japanese by Okajima Kanzan in 1757. Many artists described the Suikoden in different versions. Utagawa Kuniyoshi, the ukiyo-e artist, illustrated the Suikoden in 1827 and it gained popularity among townspeople. His work is still used as the basis of tattoo designs today. Kuniyoshi's warrior-prints inspired the development of the full body tattoo.
 The heroes' bravery and spirit fascinated many people in those days. The characters of the heroes in the Suikoden are full of chivalry. They were not malicious. They robbed to save the weak from evil. Therefore, many Edo citizens' spirit of iki perhaps shared the Suikoden heroes. The commoners admired those heroes. The most popular figure in the Suikoden was Kyumonryu Shishin, who has tattoos of nine dragons. In competition with each other. Many townspeople had dragon tattoos like the Shishin's. Besides, the image of a dragon was considered to summon water, and was popular among firemen (Tamabayashi, 1956).
There were many fires in Edo city through the Tokugawa
period (Nishiyama, 1997), and the system of firemen was well developed. That is why the design of the dragon is often seen. There is no doubt that Kuniyoshi's illustrations of the Suikoden had an impact on tattoo designs. Tattooing had a great vogue among the lower orders in Japan during the early nineteenth century, and Kuniyoshi's warrior-prints were extensively used as designs for this minor art (Robinson, 1961: 21).
 There are two reasons why the Japanese full body tattoo was developed: the existence of sumie or, monochromatic ink paintings, and the establishment of clothing fashion. Before the appearance of  ukiyo-e paintings, the technique of ink painting was brought to Japan from China. In the early period of pictorial tattoos, only outlines of designs were tattooed. It is called sujibori, outlining. A few colors were used for tattooing: black ink, vermilion and brown (Iizawa, 1973). Tattooing then applied bokashibori, shading, proceeding from the ink painting techniques. The characteristics of this style included the use of gradation and the strength that black ink and a paint brush make. The use of various colors made the designs more colorful and established the pictorial tattooing style.
 The idea of the full body tattoo comes from samurai warriors' costumes called jimbaori, a sleeveless campaign coat (Iizawa, 1973). It looked like a vest and was easy to slip on over armor (Minnich, 1963: 32). The samurai had their favorite patterns on the back of the jimbaori. They tended to like heroic designs and perhaps wanted to show their courage and pride. Some designs represented a guardian deity or a  dragon.
The first style of tattoo was done only on the back (Iizawa, 1973). Gradually, the tattoo designs extended to the shoulders, arms, and thighs, and the tattooed pictures finally came to appear on the whole body. Tamabayashi (1956) illustrates typical shapes, patterns and designs of the full body tattoos in detail. Van Gulik (1982) refers to one of the tattoo patterns as munawari. Tattooing over the entire front of the upper part of the torso with the exception of a vertical strip running from the chest to the abdomen, gave the effect of an unbuttoned vest (p.101).
The term, iki, meaning stylishness, smartness or chic, symbolizes the
nature of the Edo culture and the spirit of common people. The sense of iki was raised from resistance towards social restrictions and pressure in those days. Common people were forced to wear only plain clothes. There was rivalry with the superior class. Tattooing was born out of a sense of competition. The commoners began to show off iki  to each other, and competing iki was called date or date shin (a sense of stylishness). The word, iki in English would be "the coolest" things.  Having the full body tattoos was iki, and achieved the peak of popularity. Especially, during the Bunka Bunsei period (1804-1830), the number of tattooed individuals was rapidly growing, and professional tattooists began to appear.
The Tokugawa government prohibited tattooing in order to control the people's life and customs. However, it had no effect on the commoners' attitudes. Some authors explain that merchants were not allowed to wear gorgeous kimonos because of the rigid social system. So they turned to tattooing instead. Tamabayashi (1956), however, argues that the wealthy merchants did not wear tattoos.  The majority of tattooed people were townspeople, especially scaffold
constructors, rickshaw men, and gamblers. Amongst merchants, who were also a part of the townspeople, the practice of tattooing was rarely seen. The wealthy merchants did not wear tattoos. Even though some merchants with small business such as fish sellers got tattooed, it was exceptional (Tamabayashi, 1956: 184, translated by the author).


 Iizawa (1973) states "samurai and upper-class merchants did not have tattoos, but most artisans (labor workers) did get tattooed" (p.167). The samurai or the merchants were more likely to hide their tattoos, because of their social status or position. This probably resulted from the prevalence of Confucianism among the samurai and the merchants.
The Meiji Era (1868-1912) to the Present
 The Meiji Restoration (1868) marked the beginning of modernization in Japan. The feudal system was abolished, and Japan absorbed Western culture to cultivate new attitudes and thoughts. The first principles, the Five Articles Oath, had been already enunciated in April, 1868. Morton (1994) states: "Article 4. Evil customs of the past shall be broken off and everything based upon the just laws of Nature" (p.150). He describes "evil customs of the past" as including the Tokugawa shogunate and all its works and that the "just law of Nature" is a universal phrase.
This concept was familiar in the West but was also known to the East in fundamental Confucian and Taoist thought (Morton, 1994: 150). Adoption of the new western clothing drastically changed Japan's daily landscape. Frock coats and bowler hats for men, corseted waists and bustles for women became fashionable - they proclaimed their wearers a new breed of Japanese, persons fully the equal of Europeans and Americans (Dalby, 1993: 9-10).
 Japan's goal was to become a member of the leading nations as a
civilized and sophisticated country. The government regarded tattooing as a sign of barbarism, and in 1872, prohibited all tattooing, including the tribal tattooing by the Ainu and the Ryukyu.


 The influence of the ban on tattooing spread to literature. Tanizaki
Junichiro, one of the famous novelists in modern period, published a book titled Shisei (Tattooer),  in 1910. It is the story of a young tattoo master and a beautiful girl. Tanizaki's work was originally conceived in a contemporary setting, but later placed in the
Edo period (McCallum, 1988: 134).There was perhaps social pressure in those days.
 Ironically, the prohibition of tattooing applied only to the Japanese, not to foreign people. Many visitors from overseas were impressed by Japanese tattoo designs. Sailors, from the highest to the lowest ranks, got tattooed when they arrived in Japanese ports.  Burchett (1958) tells about meeting one Japanese tattoo master, Hori Chyo in the Meiji era. According to Burchett (1958), Hori Chyo had tattooed many British aristocrats, including the Duke of Clarence, the Duke of York (later, King George V), and the Czarevitch of Russia (later, Czar Nicholas II). As a result, Japanese tattoos were exported to oversea countries, and gained a reputation outside of Japan. Nakano (199?) cites newspaper articles regarding popularity of Japanese tattoos in the West.
 In 1948, the prohibition of tattooing was lifted. However, tattooing was outlawed among youths below the age of18 in a bid to protect minors, and those who encouraged minors to get tattooed were penalized (Nakano, 199?).
Because of its historical background, the practice of tattooing retains a negative and dark image in Japan today. Some tattooists do not have signs for their studios even though tattooing is now legal.
 Nakano (1988) reveals how tattooing is viewed in Japanese society. A sumo wrestler, while wrestling,  covered his tattoos on his left arm, and a professional boxer, Mike Tyson, hid his tattoo to appear in a Japanese commercial (Nakano, 1988).


  Nakano (1988) herself is the wife of a tattoo master, and her body is covered with tattoos. She says that people are scared of her tattoos after discovering them on her body. Of course, she does not mean to scare them.That is a typical reaction towards the full body tattoo in Japan.
Nakedness
 Brain (1979) writes about the connection between Japanese tattoo and nudity. The Japanese use tattooing to give personality to the naked body. A nude to them has never been considered "divine" or even beautiful as it has in the West. The sight of the naked body really does not have the slightest charm. So erotic drawings never depict naked people and erotic women are never nude. A man or woman tattooed by the irezumi artist is never defenselessly nude without clothes. In fact tattooing "clothes" a Japanese (p.64).
Hiler (1929) also states that tattooing in Japan was substituted for clothing: "In Japan nothing immodest is found in the fact that the sexes bathe together in a state of absolute nudity, but any representation of the nude in art is considered indecent (p.5).
 My question is whether the purpose of theJapanese tattoo is to hide the naked body because nudity is embarrassing. Nomura's article, "Remodelling the Japanese Body" (1990) provides answers to this question. He gives an example of the American zoologist, Edward Morse's work, Japan Day by Day (1917). Semi-nakedness was a natural part of the landscape in Japan at that time.
Morse's intellectual interest was aroused by all kinds of things and manners Japanese. In particular, he seems to have been strongly impressed by the fact that the Japanese often lived in a semi-naked state. He repeatedly notes the steaming bodies of rickshaw men resting after a ride; a woman in only a loincloth lying down with a baby to make it go to sleep; fishermen with just their fundoshi (loincloths) on mending their nets.  Naked bodies appeared to Morse's eyes everywhere in the Japanese landscape (pp.259-260).


Nakedness used to be an accepted part of daily life. The Japanese were accustomed to seeing nudity. It did not always imply eroticism. As Hiler (1929) mentions, the Japanese have the habit of bathing. In those days, people did not have a bathtub at home. They usually took a public bath. Tattoo wearers took more time for a bath to show their tattoos proudly. Besides, there were many jobs in which the workers exposed most of their bodies: rickshaw men, fisher people, firemen, ama (women divers) or carpenters were all semi-naked or naked. Both males and females did not care about being naked in public.
Imagine sumo wrestlers. They still wrestle in the traditional way. Their nakedness was a part of their job. Nomura (1990) also mentions that there was a travelogue which naked peasants showed up in the early modern times. The scene of nakedness was very natural to the Japanese. Probably, tattooed people were often seen as well.
. In terms of aesthetic views, however, Japan has different ways of expressing eroticism from the West. Michener (1954) explains that ukiyo-e avoids nakedness and foregoes slick suggestiveness (p.202). It does not mean that ukiyo-e ignores eroticism, but rather, it is free of erotic content (Michener, 1954).
It is often said that in Japan naked parts denote coquetry only when set in the context of the tension resulting from the relationship between the naked and covered parts. For example, the simple exposure of private parts is not immediately connected with coquetry (Nomura, 1990: 262).

The Yakuza and Tattooing


 The yakuza are notorious Japanese syndicate members. Their history dates back over 300 years. Their origin can be traced back to the Edo period (Kaplan and Dupro, 1986). The ancestors of the modern yakuza  used tattooing as a mark of status.
 Tattoos are the greatest trademark of the yakuza. When we go to see a yakuza movie, for instance, the tattooed yakuza often show up. Rome (1975) refers to the modern yakuza as the title "The Tattooed Men," and describes a typical scene in a yakuza movie: There is a gambling scene where somebody cheats, is discovered, the kimonos are dropped from the shoulders revealing tattoos (cheers from the audience), swords appear and blood is spilled." (p.213)
Kaplan and Dupro (1986) state that approximately 73 percent of the yakuza have tattoos. Among the yakuza, undergoing tattooing was a test to show their strength. The traditional Japanese tattoo takes a long time to complete. To wear the full body tattoo, one needs patience to endure the time and pain. For some yakuza, tattoos are a proof of strength, courage, toughness and masculinity. Besides, wearing tattoos makes them feel a sense of solidarity as a member of the organization. Such tattoos mean loyalty or faithfulness towards the organization.
 Although the yakuza began to accept tattoos as their custom in the Edo period, it was not  an outstanding figure in those days. Following Japan's economic growth, the yakuza population rapidly increased, and became more often involved in criminal activities. Because of the outlaws' path, we are likely to associate tattooing with the yakuza, and eventually the fixed notion that tattooing has a criminal aspects was built up.
 However, in recent years the number of the yakuza with tattoos has been decreasing. Because of increased law enforcement, the yakuza have lost many their sources of income. Moreover, Kaplan and Dupro (1986) point out that the nature of the yakuza has been changing. Although devoting one's life to the organization was the way to survive in the yakuza world, today's young yakuza become less obedient at each step. The younger yakuza are forsaking the full-body pictorial tattoos. They opt instead for a simple line drawing or phrase on their upper arm, more similar to the tattoos of Western youths. The reason, says researcher Hoshino, is not a change in aesthetics: the old-style tattoos cost a fortune, and are simply no longer worth either the physical or financial stress

 

(Kaplan and
Dupro, 1986: 273).


 Since the Act for Prevention of Unlawful Activities by Boryokudan (syndicate) members was passed in 1992, the influence of the yakuza  has weakened. According to recent reports (Asahi shinbun, 1997), many yakuza try to remove their tattoos and have operations to replace missing fingers in order to return to mainstream society. Moreover, an article in a current magazine (Vollmann, 1999) tells that one yakuza continued to be untattooed. When he was young, his boss had forbidden him to be tattooed on the grounds that fashions change (p.77). Thus, even the yakuza themselves admit that their tattoos are not acceptable. People with tattoos are likely to be stigmatized and regarded as misfits in Japanese society. There is another interesting response about tattoos by the yakuza boss (Vollmann, 1999). The interviewer asks if the yakuza wear certain types of tattoos. The yakuza boss replies: "No, you can't tell. We're not a tribe." (Vollmann, 1999: 78).
To be tattooed in Japan is to abandon conventional society and go into the underworld.  It is true that some yakuza tend not to have tattoos. Tattooing is no longer used as either a test of strength or a sign of solidarity among the yakuza.
Bath Girls and Tattoo
 Tattoos and sensuality are often connected. Nakano (1988) in her book titled Irezumishi no onnatachi (the wives of tattooists) states that tattoos have sex appeal, uncovering the practice of tattooing among Japanese women involved with the sex industry.  "Soapland" is a place which men come in and choose a bath girl to have sexual pleasure with. "Soap" refers to a bathtub or bathroom. "Soapland" refers to the bathhouse with the brothel. However, technically, sex activities are not involved with this business. If the soap jo, bath girl of the soapland had tattoos, she would have been regarded as a "defective" product (Nakano, 1988). However, the number of tattooed girl-lovers has increased recently in order to satisfy their desire. The tattooed soap jos are becoming popular (Nakano, 1988). Some soap jos want to be covered with tattoos for their job.
One-point Tattoo


 Contemporary tattoo style evolves from the West. Tattooing is treated as a body art and is gaining popularity among young people. "One-point tattoo" means getting only one tattoo, and is often used among young Japanese. Some Japanese choose to wear skulls, roses or hearts. The fashion in the entertainment world affects Japanese youth culture. For instance, my friend was a fan of a rock band and got a rose tattoo which represents a symbol of the band. Recently, Japanese entertainers with tattoos often show up on TV or in magazines. One Japanese pop singer has a tattoo of a bar code on her wrist, and the young tend to follow her style.
 Nakano (1988) also states that tattooing has become more popular among Japanese females than males. Tattooing in Japan used to be dominated by males, but the tattooed female population is increasing. Females tend to be more keen on fashions than males, and tattooing is accepted as a fashion among Japanese women (p.195).


The attitudes towards the one-point tattoo and the full body tattoo are, more or less, different. Unlike the full body tattoo, the one-point tattoo is more acceptable as a fashion trend among the young in Japan.
Ethics in Japanese Adornment
 According to a recent article in a Japanese newspaper, tattoos and body piercing are regarded as an ultimate fashion, a form of self-expression and a physical transformation of the body in Japanese youth culture (The Daily Yomiuri, 1994). However, the permanent fashion does not entirely satisfy every customer. While the customers are pleased with getting the tattoo, they still consider Japan's cultural code. A young man is not perfectly comfortable with his tattoos. He can no longer wear a white shirt when commuting because it is visible through the fabric. Another 21 year-old man regrets his tattoos: "If you're interested in new fashion, remember that tattoos are forever" (The Daily Yomiuri, 1994).
 The cultural code is still a big part of Japanese ethics. The body arts such as body piercing, henna painting, nail decorating and temporary tattoo are gaining more popularity than real tattoos in Japan (Saito, 1997). Besides, contemporary young tattooists are beginning to use computer technology to create new tattoo styles. Images are graphically designed on the computer and made into a transfer for temporary tattoos. The customers are able to wear real photo-like tattoos. The temporary tattoo is an attractive item for Japanese teenagers. The sales of the temporary tattoos have skyrocketed (Saito, 1997). People can enjoy tattoos as fashion without any risk of breaking cultural code.

From One-point Tattoo to Tatuu


 Recently, tattooing seems to be more popular among Japanese people than a few years ago, not as just "one-point tattoo," but as tatuu(tattoo). Tatuu is  a Japanese-English term, coming from the English word, "tattoo." Japanese often use tatuu instead irezumi or horimono . A magazine article describes the current tattoo situation. Many Japanese tattooers and tattooees gathered in Osaka for a photograph convention held by a magazine publisher in April, 1999 (Mori 1999). They showed off their tattoos proudly, and tended to compare and compete with others: "My tattoo cost more than yours!" According to this article (Mori, 1999), the number of young Japanese tattooists who learned tattooing in the West is growing. While the Western designs are becoming popular among young Japanese, the Japanese traditional style is highly appreciated among tattoo-lovers.  Japanese people often use these terms, youbori and wabori to distinguish tattooing styles. Yobori means the Western style of tattoos.
For example, the designs of this style are flowers, animals, cartoon characters and much else, and such tattoos are usually done by machine. On the other hand, the term wabori meaning "Japanese style," refers to ukiyo-e pictures. They are dragons, carp, Buddha, maple leaves or peonies. Many traditional tattooists also use tattooing machines, but in a traditional way. Japanese tattooing used to be done by hand. Tebori , tattooing by hand, requires special technique, and only a few traditional tattooists can offer tebori. A big difference between Western and Japanese styles is a background of designs. In western style, the designs usually do not have a shaded background,  but the Japanese style has such a background.


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In recent years Celtic Tattoos have enjoyed a revival. We specialize in historical knotwork and Celtic ornamental style Tattooing . Our research on the subject has provided a wealth of new and exciting knots for applications as Tattoos . Anyone who desires a Historical Celtic Tattoo, Mythological Celtic Tattoo or a pride in their heritage Celtic Tattoo will be pleased with our vast collection of custom Celtic art.



The Celts transmitted their culture orally, never writing down history or facts. This accounts for the extreme lack of knowledge about them prior to their contact with the classical civilizations of Greece and Rome. They were generally well educated, particularly on topics such as religion, philosophy, geography and astronomy.

The Romans often employed Celtic tutors for their sons, many of these tutors were Druid priests. Religion was a force in Celtic culture. The Druids were their priestly caste. The Celts were extremely superstitious.
The history of the Celtic peoples goes back some thousands of years . At one time all of Europe was Celtic.

England was ruled entirely by Celts . Eventually the Romans, Angles and Saxons came and pushed the Celts to the north and west. One of the great Celtic events of history was the Fifth-Century battle between King Arthur and his Celtic army against the dark pagan hordes in England ( as the Celts termed the non-Celtic peoples ).

The Celts considered King Arthurs loss to be the death of civilization. King Arthur himself remains an important figure in Celtic legend. The original historic story is now much embroidered with medieval knights and traditions.

 


The ancient Celtic Art was full of interlacing patterns, elaborate knotwork, spirals, animal forms and animal zoomorphics, and color.

The early Celts displayed their art especially in metal: jewelry , weapons (they were fierce warriors ), figurines and pots are some of the many artifacts that come to light.

Knotwork tradition in manuscript painting spread the style from Britain and Ireland to Scotland (in those days Pictland and Dalriada), Wales and Northumbria and with the travels of missionaries of the Celtic church to Europe. Viking raiders later appropriated many of the design concepts into their own personalized , more chaotic style of animal interlace.

Modern Celtic peoples have evolved symbols for themselves, and in the North American people of Celtic descent often wear these symbols to show that they are of Celtic descent.

For instance, the most common Irish symbol is the three -leaved shamrock, although the Harp is often used as well. The harp has been the national instrument for all the Celtic people since the dawn of their history.

The Scottish symbol is the Thistle, along with the wearing of tartans. The Welsh flag is a red dragon on a green and white background . They consider the red dragon as their most Welsh symbol, but along with the dragon they recognize the leek and the daffodil.



When Christianity came to the Celtic lands of Britain and Ireland, the monks of the seventh century adapted the ancient Celtic art forms to the new religion.

The Celtic cross and the Tree of Life, for example came from this marriage. Writing also came to the Celts for the first time. The most famous manuscript by the monks is the beautiful Book of  Kells, on display in the library of Trinity College in Dublin. 

Celtic knots are complete loops with no end or beginning. Celtic animal interlace is similar in construction but the cords terminate in feet, heads, tails ect. Pure knots should always be unending, unless the loose end of a strand is stylized into a zoomorphic element or a spiral.

As for symbolism: knotwork designs are emblematic in modern times of the Celtic nationalities. The symbolism that has come down through the ages is as obscure and indirect as much of the speech and literature of the Celtic people.

Knotwork’s meaning defies literal translation and should be sought at a deeper level. The repeated crossing of the physical and the spiritual are expressed in the interlace of the knots. The never ending path of the strands may represent the permanence and the continuum of life, love and faith.

CELTIC TATTOO

Celtic tattoos are one of the most popular design choices. With their intricate weave, and such a wide variety of art to choose from, it is no wonder that such a different array of people have chosen it as their tattoo. The great majority of the designs used in Celtic tattoos come from illuminated manuscripts as well as ancient art from Ireland, Scotland and England.

Many believe that the best way to interpret Celtic artwork is as meditation or as a prayer. Celtic tattoos are usually not strictly representational and they do not attempt to duplicate the world and especially nature exactly as it is (nature being imperfect anyways). They are made of sinuous lines that form an intricate interweaving formed to complete a cycle (there is no end nor a beginning to a Celtic knot).

For people who have a Celtic heritage, whether they are Irish, Scots or Welsh, getting a Celtic tattoo can be a way of expressing pride in their heritage by reaffirming an affinity the indigenous artistic style of their ancestors. They are usually not easy designs to tattoo, and it is strongly recommended to anyone contemplating getting one to make sure that the artist they are considering has experience in designing Celtic tattoos. Not all tattoo artists have the eye for detail and exacting line placement needed to draw the intricate patterns particular to Celtic art.


The Celtic Cross, an icon of Celtic Art is one of the earliest symbols to combine the pagan and Christian traditions in one object. Based on early Sun worship, the circle is the sun, and early respect for the Four Directions, the combination of the two makes for a powerful early Christian symbol for Christ's cross. The Druids of early Irish religion and art saw the circle as the eternal, unchanging way of unity, the universal way; and the crossroads as the path on earth that each individual man walks. The one, leads to the other and they intermix not only in pagan art and religion, but in Christianity as well. The cross also symbolized the times of the Celtic Year and its four great festivals, Beltaine, Lugnasadh, Samhain, Imbolc. The Celtic Cross is made up of unending knots, the Celtic Knots that are known worldwide, as symbols of infinity, eternity. These knots are seen most beautifully in the Book of Kells.

 

CELTIC NUMBER MYTHOLOGY

Three    was a sacred number in ancient
Celtic mythology and religion. Riddles and triadic phraseology are frequent in Celtic mythology. The triskel, a figure composed of three spirals, signifies the three-layered nature of a human soul, and is itself a central figure in ancient Celtic symbolism. The earth, sea, and sky were thought to share a three-fold marriage in oaths and as witness to deeds, and represented sacred elements.



The number five signified the family unit and order in Irish tradition, because of the five provinces of Ireland, and also the five laws imposed on provincial Irish kings.

Seventeen    was a number associated with the cycles of the visible moon, particularly the new moon. On this day of the moon's cycle, many influential and monumental events were thought to have taken place. The 17th generation was supposed to be the farthest reaches of ancestral memory, putting the longevity of memories within a clan at approximately 400 years.


Twenty-seven    represented the sacred number nine tripled three times, which supposedly triples its potency. Twenty-seven also signified the number of warriors comprising a war-band, and the number of the members of a Celtic chieftain's royal court. The number nine may also have been associated with a nine-day lunar week. 

Thirty-three   represented the royal or judicary number, signifying great honor. The courts of great gods and heroes number thirty-two, with the king of the gods making the tally thirty-three. This also represented the number of islands that Maelduin had to visit before he could find his homeland.

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Пиърсинга си е сериозна работа, и не бива да се подлъгвате, че една обеца не може да ви причини нищо лошо.

Първо ще започна с лошата страна на пиърсинга. Трябва да знаете защо се дупчите.

Ако е за гъзария, трябва да знаете, че с обеца

по тялото не е шега работа.

 

Можете да получите множество видове инфекции. Ако искате на езика трябва да знаете, че от възпаление на езика можете да получите мозъчна инфекция, което определено не е начин за прекарване на остатъка от живота ви.

А като знаете, че за малката гъзария сте получили нещо толкова лошо, или някакво друга заболяване на почти равни по последствия резултати ще се питате: "Защо на мен, аз само исках, ..."

Всяка обеца трябва да е с премерен риск. Една обеца

трябва да носи удоволствие по време на носенето.

Трябва да значи нещо за теб и за твойта култура. А не "Пенка има, то е модерно та сега и аз да си сложа.". До скоро в чалгата беше дошла Индийската култура на мода и беше модерно обеца

на носа.

Но надали някои си е давал представа какво всъщност е това. Никои не си е давал сметка, че се дупчи точно определено място и попадане в неопитни ръце би било пагубно за вашето носле. Ако вместо  месестата част да бъде продупчена ви продупчат хрущяла. Обецата

пак ще зарасне но на каква цена.

Болки защото хрущялът боли много, а при случайно възпаление се наложи рязане на хрущяла поради възможноста за разпространението на замърсяването на обецата

. И тогава ще ходите като урод в лицето, обезобразен от една прищявка.

Лоша работа. А дори и поставянето на такава обеца е трудно, поради това, че единият вид обеца която се поставя е с закривен край, е ужаса дори и на добър пиърсингър

.

А вторият тип след поставяне става ужас за носене. Ако случайно я закачите ще усетите много голяма болка поради това, че тялото на обецата е 0,8 мл от 1.0 см и е като нож. 

 

A да не говориме, че подуе ли ви се носа ще изпаднете в много лоша ситуация защото по-принцип тези тела са много къси и могат да запушат евентуално дупката и да зарасне бавно и болезнено, или да се възпали и да трябва да се направи пластична операция. 

Чувал съм, че слагат и обеца на носа с пистолет. Това не е от най-мъдрите неща защото пистолета ударно поставя обеца

, а при удара се получават микро пукнатини и до 24 часа се е възпалила ужасно направената дупка.

И може излизането от проблема с възпаляването да е много трудно избежим без оперативна намеса. Обеца на веждата също крие много рискове. С времето тялото ви изхвърля обецата

, като изтънява веждата ви, и евентуално се къса и имате белег или се дупчите на ново но малко по-навътре.

А един път да минат два месеца, а в други случай и по-малко време махнете ли обецата ще имате белег. Или по-точно две дупки на с малко по голям диаметър от тялото на обецата

. А може да се засегне и нерв и да ви увисне веждата (в най-добрият случай, може и цялото лице).

Обеца на пъпа е хубава работа, но това е най-лесната да възпаление и отваряне в тялото точка. Под отваряне да се скъса, да ви разрани пъпа, да се отвори и др.. Обеца на гърдата

БОЛИ и бавно зараства.

Лесно се разранява, и не всеки издържа. А и гърдата ви ще набъбне все едно сте възбудени. А при жените има и момент на раждане и кърмене на детето.

Ако ви се сложи още при дупченето по-тежка обеца от нормалното (а нормалното е различно при всеки човек, заради различните видове кожа и еластичност), самата дупка може да се измести, да зараства по-бавно от обикновенхото, да се зацапва лесно заради това, че обецата много ще опъва кожата и дупката ще е по-широка, и ще влиза мръсотия.

Аз работя в студио и съм професионалист. Иначе не бих си играл да дупча хора. Не си мислете, че дупченето е нещо което може да практикува всеки.

  

 

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И ето какво се показа – едва ли не всеки трети дамски кръст е татуиран. Ако не е кръста – ще е например плешката (забелязала съм, че по-често това е дясната плешка).

 

Или пък отпред ниско на костта. Или под пъпа (което е доста непрагматично, имайки си предвид, че тази татуировка е обречена при евентуална бременност). Но това е относително по-редкият вариант.



Сравнително малко са жените, които си татуират ръцете (към раменете – онова място, на което на космата мъжка ръка идеално стои груба синееща татуировка с русалка, размахваща пищни прелести, котва и надпис от рода на “Цеца Приморско 1986”). Също не са много тези, които разкрасяват во веки и глезените си.

Иначе любопитни варианти като зад ухото, отзад на врата или от вътрешната страна на бедрото също се срещат. Е, не чак толкова под път и над път като татусът на кръста де. Фината (или не чак толкова) дамска талия се оказва най-баналното място за татуировка.

Идва ти наум да се татуираш. Идеята увира известно време в съзнанието и така – хоп, една прекрасна сутрин стигаш до извода, че ДА!, това е денят, в който ще направя нещо трайно и завинаги!

Да направим един поглед назад в историята. Татуирането винаги е било възприемано като свещен ритуал. Изненадващо беше и за мен като разбрах коя се води родината на татуировката.

Това е Египет. Поне най-старите данни за правене на перманентни (повтарям – перманентни) татуировки се свързват с третата и четвъртата династия, или горе-долу 6000 - 2000 год.пр.н.е.

 

Оттогава датират глинени фигурки на жени, на чиито тела има следи от пунктирни татуировки (т.е. такива, при които боята остава под кожата и изображението не се маха – за разлика от татусите с къна, които падат при беленето на епидермиса, т.е. за един до три-четири месеца в зависимост от качеството на къната).

 

Към 2800-2600 год.пр.не. това изкуство за изографисването на тялото започва стихийно да се пренася към Далечния Изток, заедно с оформянето на трайни икономически отношения на Египет с Индия и Китай. Оттам се пренася и в Япония, а японците дори са развили традиционно изкуство на татуирането (а в основата му са йероглифи!).

Важно е все пак да се отбележи основната историческа теза, а именно, че татуировките се появяват в прародините си и се налагат основно като типично женски “аксесоар". 



Не така стоят нещата с т.нар. трайбъл татуировки. Те са типични племенни “маркери” за племената от Полинезия, Филипините, Борнео, Самоа, Нова Зеландия, аборигените от Австралия.

 

Трайбъл жанра е супер популярен в днешно време. Има голяма стилова разлика между типичните за дадено племе изображения, но в албумите в тату-студията обикновено няма особено дълги обяснения кое какво символизира, каква сила носи.

 

При по-добър късмет татуистът сам би обяснил, повечето са наясно поне на кое племе принадлежи дадената татуировка, но едва ли винаги са подготвени да обяснят какво божествено послание носят. Характерно за езическите племена е, че право да бележат тялото си завинаги получават само мъже, стоящи високо в племенната йерархия.

Татуирането е свещено изкуство и за американските племена. Най-почетно място в каталозите по тату-студията са заслужили ацтеките.

 

За разлика от трайбъл татуировките, които обикновено са стилизирани, тези на ацтеките, инките, маите и на индианците от Северна Америка изобразяват по-цялостни и детайлни фигури на птици (орлите са на особена почит), слънца, богове, бизони и пр.

 

При тях също мъжете са тези, които се татуират. С изобразяването на животното, което е убил, индианецът получава от неговата сила. А при ацтеките, например – на целия гръб се татуира божеството, което закриля воина.

В т.нар. цивилизован свят татуировките не се възприемат особено положително – не и като културен белег при всички положения. Не може да се каже, че е настанала тотална революция в мисленето и че в 21-ви век татуировките вече се възприемат като право на личен избор, никога не се осъждат социално, не раждат предразсъдъци.



Масово татуировките все още се свързват с моряци и затворници (или поне хора, които са били някога моряци или затворници). Но, по дяволите, огледайте се – как да не е ултра фашън да се татуираш като всички супер звезди са го направили – първо се сещам за Анджелина Джоли, после, ща-не ща, ми идва на ум Бритни.

 

И кой ли още не, да не са малко. Мъжките секссимволи като Бекъм или Роби Уилямс да не би да са малко издраскани? Обикновените хора на 21-ви изпитват голяма нужда да подражават на идолите си. Това може да е едната причина да се татуираш.

Друга, надявам се по-честата, най-малкото, защото е по-адекватна, е себеизразяването.

 

Да, себеизразяването може освен избор на любима музика, стил на обличане, прическа и т.н. да бъде и татуирането – и защо не. Повечето хора, които си правят татуировка, все пак влагат мисъл, влагат специфична и много лична символика. Дори и в една розичка или една пеперудка, една котва или един трайбъл може да има адски много пластове и значения. Важното е не как околните ги възприемат, а как “приносителят” на татуировката ги тълкува за самия себе си.



Защо се татуираме? Ами основно от суета. Няма какво повече да въртим и сучем. В повечето случаи идеята е татуировката да се вижда – да буди възхищение и коментари.

 

Да бъде секси (и затова жените избират именно тези две най-популярни места – кръста и плешката – това са секси ерогенни зони, които освен това не търпят особени промени дори и при наддаване или сваляне на килограми – нещо доста важно, за което си струва да се помисли – защото разтягащата се кожа или стриите могат да деформират силно изображението).

 

Особено при представителките на нежния пол – това е възвръщане към митичната женственост и чувственост на египтянките или на индийките.

Иначе татуираните мацки в днешно време, и по-специално в социо-културната действителност на българското настояще, обикновено са възприемани като екзотични, макар че това е вече натрапчиво често срещано явление. И всъщност, доминиращото мнение е, че или са перверзни, или просто се правят на интересни. Което няма как да не дразни татуираните по философски подбуди – като мен например ;)



В България тату-студията са толкова много, че пръстите не стигат за да ги изброиш, пък камо ли да събереш мнения и коментари за всяко от тях.

Цял свят е тръгнал да се татуира, така че е доста рядко срещано явление да се разболееш от хепатит или друга предавана по кръвен път болест вследствие на употреба на нестерилизирани игли. Или както се изрази един мой скъп приятел, давайки ми кураж преди аз да се татуирам “Имаш шанс да те заразят с хепатит само ако се татуираш при някой циганин на седмия етаж в блок в Обеля”.

Като финал, имам един добронамерен съвет към всеки, на който му е минало през ума да се дамгоса завинаги - не го правете, освен ако не сте категорично и абсолютно сигурни, че това искате и няма да съжалявате още на следващата сутрин.

 

 

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Tattoo art has become extremely popular in the past few years. Research shows that North America alone has over 45 million people who have one or more tattoos.

Due to this ever-increasing popularity of tattoos, tattoo art galleries have also come into tremendous form. These galleries display all kinds of tattoo designs, both ancient and modern, which help to understand the meaning behind this body art that is inked into skin.

The art of tattooing is said to have originated from various tribes and most of the tattoo art galleries highlight the amazing history, powerful rituals and extraordinary social significance of tribal tattooing in many different cultures of the world.
Please feel free to visit our gallerys on www.nushostattoo.com






















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Току що продупчената кожа, е много податлива на инфекции. За това трябва да се вземат превантивни мерки.

 

Преди да правите каквото и да е почистване, си измивате ръцете с "Septi Hand" което може да го намерите в всяка по-голяма аптека. С този препарат си измивате ръцете, а той от своя страна предлага най-добрата защита, защото дезинфекцира против Спин и Хепатит Ц, за да може да сте абсолютно сигурни, че всичко е стерилно. След което  вземате кислородна вода 3% и с тампони за почистване на уши и започвате да си чистите обеците си по-следния начин. Взимате едно тампонче и го намокряте с кислородна вода и

 

- ако обецата ви е изпълнила цялата дупка и не се подава нейн край от някоя страна я бутате ту от едната страна, ту от другата и мажете с кислородната вода и гледате да влиза вътре в дупката, повтаряте множество пъти и повтаряте цялата процедура 5-6 пъти на ден а после намаляте по-ваша преценка броевете повтаряне

 

- ако обецата е образувала коричка я махате внимателно за да не разраните дупката и да се получи рана, като пак не забравяйте да си дезинфекцирате ръцете преди чистене

 

- ако имате обеца на езика дезинфекцията е по-лесна, купувате си "Sandrin" има го в аптеките и разтваряте няколко капки от концентрата в вода, и се жабуркате след ядене, пушене и пиене на алкохол, а алтернативата ако не ви поняса "Sandrin" е "Biodent", той се жабурка без да се разтваря и е по-слаб на ниво дезинфекция от "Sandrin" но по лесно се поняся. Не давайте да пипат обеците ви, особенно тази на езика възпаление на езика е много лошо ,защото неговите кръвоносни съдове са директно свързани с мозъка, и всяка инфекция плъзва доста бързо по тялото.

- а ако е прекалено замърсена обецата или прекалено бързо се образува секрет и кислородната вода не върши работа си взимате салицилов спирт 2% и почиствате обецата с него, но не повече от 3-4 пъти. Ако пак не върши работа отивайте до личният лекар да прегледа положението, защото образуване на секрет (или по-секси казано ГНОЙ И ЛИМФА) толкова скоростно означава, че може да имате свръх активна имунна система и да доведе до проблеми с обеците, защото те ще я изтощят много бързо.

www.nushostattoo.com

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Трудно е да се каже кога за пръв път човек е нанесъл татуйровка на своята кожа.Но, се счита, че историята на татуйровката е на повече от 6 000 г.
Най-древните
татуйровки са намерени при разкопките на египетските пирамиди, върху мумии на възраст 4000 г.
Но
татуйровката се появява много по-рано, при първобитно - общинния строй.Тя е служела не само като украшение, а и като племенен знак, род,тотем,и освен всичко е носела определна магическа сила.
Причините за нейното появяване също не са ясни. Според една теория-това е нормален процес от естествени наранявания на кожата, случайно получени от хората през Каменния век. Раните и одраскванията са се сливали в причудливи форми, отличаващи техния носител от съплеменниците му, като храбър воин и добър ловец. С времето първобитните общества са се разширили, обединявайки се в малки организирани общества, където вече специално поставени знаци имали специфично значение в пределите на дадената група.
Различни видове
татуиране са практикували всички народи от Европа, Азия, индианците от северна и южна Америка и разбира се жителите на Океания.
Именно индонезийските и полинезийските племена /при които
татуирнето се предава от поколение на поколение/, са най-добрия пример в антропологичните доказателства за социалното значение на татуйровката.



Лицето- винаги на показ. Именно затова лицевите украшения са на първо място. Маорите от Нова Зеландия носят на лицата си маскообразни татуировки наречени "Моко". Тези удивителни и хитроумни рисунки служат като постоянна бойна украса и са показател за доблестта и общественото положение на притежателят им. Според местния обичай ако на загиналия в битка воин има маска "Моко", той се удостоява с висша почит-неговата глава се отрязва и се запазва като реликва на племето. А труповете на нетатуираните воини са хвърляни на дивите животни. Образците "Моко" са така индивидуални , че често бивали използвани като лияен подпис или отпечатък от палец. В началото на миналия век, продаващите на английски мисионери земя маори, подписвали договорите като изобразявали точно своите маски "Моко".

Жените на древните японци татуирали на лицата си своето семейно положение, по татуйровката можело да се определи омъжена ли е жената и колко деца има. Така и при други народи обичайните нарези и рисунки по телата на жените, символизирали тяхната издържливост и плодовитост. На някои места женското татуиране е доведено до крайност - на атола Нукуро, деца родени от не татуирани жени са убивани при раждането.
Татуирането е свързано и с т.нар. "преходни" обреди- посвещаването на юношите в мъже, или преселванвто в задгобния свят. Например: племето Даик на о-в Борнео, вярвали, че в местния рай "Ано-Кезио" всичко придобивало нови качества: светлото ставало тъмно, сладкото-горчиво и т.н. Изобретателните и предвидливи даикци, са се татуирали предимно в тъмни оттенъци- видоизменящи се след смъртта им в светли и сияещи. Като това показвало благополучното преминаване на собственика им през тъмната пропаст между Земята и "Ано-Кезио".



Също така при различните народи на татуйровките са придавани магически свойства: защита на децата от родителски гняв, при възрастните защита в бой и лов и при старците против болести.
Магията на татуйровката се използвала не само от "диваците". През XVIII-XIX век британския моряк изобразявал на гърба си огромно разпятие, с надеждата, че ще го предпази от телесни наказания, широко практикувани в английската флота. При арабите най-надежден закрилящ талисман се смятала татуйровка с цитат от Корана.

При всички посочени примери, татуйровката така или иначе показвала социалния статус на собственика и но в някои случаи тя е служела като наказание. В Япония, провинция Чукудзен през периода Едо 1603-1867 г. , на разбойниците за първо престъпление нанасяли хоризонтална линия през челото, за второ-дъгообразна, за трето- още една, като така се получава японския йероглоф Ину- "куче". В древен Китай едно от петте класически наказания било татуйровка на лицето. Също така белязвали роби и военнопленници, за да затруднят бягството и улеснят разпознаването им. При гърците и римляните е използвана със същата цел.А испанските конкистадори пренесли тази практика в Мексико и Никарагуа.



Вече през нашето столетие по време на Първата световна война, британците татуирали "D" на дезертьорите. В Германия отбелязвали номера на затворниците в концлагерите, също практувано в лагерите на СССР.

Славяните за нанасянето на татуйровките използвали глинени матрици или печати наречени "пинтадера". Тези своеобразни преси с ромбо-меандрови изображения са били крайно необходими в мнагическия ритуал на култа към плодородието.



С разпространението на християнството обичая на татуирането започнал да се изкоренява, като съществена част от езическите обреди.
Забраната била толкова сурова, че татуирането не се практикува в Европа чак до XVIII век. По ирония на съдбата, когато християнските мисисонери отправяйки се в далечните страни да покръстват "диваците", а също и моряците се татуирали за спомен от пътешествията.
Капитан Джеймс Кук допринесъл най-много за развитито на татуйровките в Европа. Връщайки се от плаване през 1769 г. той донесъл от Таити не само думата "tattoo", но и довел "Великия Омаи"- изцяло татуиран полинезиец, който станал сензация- първата жива "tattoo"галерия. Много скоро нито един уважаващ себе си пътуващ цирк не минавал без участието на "знатен дивак". В края на XIX в. модата на аборигиените западнала. Вместо тях на представленията излизали американци и европейци. Например някоя си лейди Виола, която си татуирала портретите на шест американски президенти, Чарли Чаплин, и много др. знаменитости, предизвикаваща възторга на тълпата и през нашето столетие.Но трябва да се отбележи, че макар и да обичали да гледат разкрасените циркаджии,европейците и американците не дръзвали да се татуират. Това било привилегия на моряци, затворници, летци и други подобни "профсъюзи",изобразяващи татуйровката като символ на вярност, братство,солидарност,и тардиции. Съвременната популярност на "tattoo" на Запад се свързва именно с тях. Те също са отговорни за творческия застой в западното татуиране в края на XIX и началото на XX век. Оскъдното въображение и съмнителните художествени вкусове на желаещите довело до ограничаване в "tattoo"-репертоара на морска тематика, пошли сантиментални, банални афоризми. Тъжно но факта си е факт. Цивилизацията свела древното изкуство до кич. Отсъствието на достойна конкуренция лишило художниците от стимул в творчеството и от нови естетични разработки.



Именно тогава , през 1891 г. американеца О'Райли изобретил електрическа татуираща машина, заменяща всевъзможните самоделни инструменти и приспособления. Но даже и техническия прогрес не извадил изкуството от застоя му. През цялата първа половина на XX век, американците и европейците ходят със стандарния набор безлични и глупави картинки.
Благодарение на мощния тласък на младежката култура през 50 - 60 те години, се появило ново поколение татуировчици. Творческите им амбиции и смелите експерименти издигат "tattoo" до ранга на изкуство. Художниците широко заимствали традиционни образци от Далечния Изток, Полинезия, американските индианци, създавали преливащи се хибридни рисунки и нови стилове, школи и направлния.
Така започнал новия съвременен етап от хилядолетната "tattoo" история.

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Факт е новата версия на nushostattoo.com . Сайт за татуйровки, боди пиърсинг и множество авторски галерии...само за ценители !


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